Simple, fast and inexpensive methods for malaria transmission measurements are critical for interventions evaluation as control efforts intensify.
The Dangme West District in Ghana has three ecological zones, forest (Dodowa), lakeside (Osudoku) and coastal (Pampram). It hosts the Dodowa Health Research Centre. In 1993, Dodowa had a parasite prevalence rate of 42.2% (dry) and 51.3% (rainy), while Pampram had 20% (dry) and 36.6% (rainy) seasons.
This is a three part study:
Prevalence: Two cross sectional surveys (3500 participants, all ages), selected using multistage cluster sampling from the three zones were conducted in the wet (August 2011) and dry seasons (March 2012). Interviews were conducted after written informed consent. Finger prick blood samples were taken for RDT and blood films. Used RDTs were stored at 4°C and processed (eluates) for Indirect ELISAs recognizing MSP119.
A cohort of 2145 participants (all ages), 715 from each zone, was followed once a month for a year. History of fever within the past 2 weeks was elicited.
Entomology: 4 houses per zone were selected for mosquito collection per month for 12 months (April 2011 to March 2012) by Human Landing Collections (HLCs).
Dry season: ITN ownership was 23.5% in Dodowa (n=1099), 38.8% in Osudoku (n=1142) and 26.6% in Pampram (n=1215). RDT positive rate was 20.8%, 8.8% and 22.0% and Plasmodiumfalciparum parasite (blood film) prevalence rate was 5.3%, 2.1% and 4.9% respectively. Entomology: a total of 2736 mosquitoes were collected. 25.2%were Anopheles Gambiae and 1.2% were Anopheles Funestus.